New structures were built to replace them, but as time went on they became much smaller in construction, until eventually the cell-like buildings were no larger than a family-sized Jacuzzi with pillars no more than five feet (a meter and a half) in height. In the north, the plateau is connected to a neighbouring mountain range by a narrow promontory. Invariably the structures are ovoid in shape, with a length to breadth ratio of 5:4, numbers that could hint at the Göbekli builders’ profound awareness of cosmic time cycles not usually thought to have been understood until the age of Plato.  American archaeologist Peter Benedict identified lithics collected from the surface of the site as belonging to the Aceramic Neolithic, but mistook stone slabs (the upper parts of the T-shaped pillars) for grave markers, postulating that the prehistoric phase was overlain by a Byzantine cemetery. Somehow the world had changed, and the impetus for creating gigantic stone temples with enormous twin monoliths at their centers was no longer there. Göbekli Tepe: Southeast‐Hollow. At the western edge of the hill, a lionlike figure was found. Nights of the Witch Thereafter there was no pole star for several thousand years, meaning that when Göbekli Tepe was built… And their target: the setting down on the local horizon of Deneb, Cygnus’s brightest star, which marked the start of the Milky Way’s Great Rift, a role played by Deneb as early as 16,500-14,000 BC. 14,000 and 13,000 BC it was the star Delta Cygni, and between ca.  It is approximately 760 m (2,500 ft) above sea level. Having found similar structures at Nevalı Çori, he recognized the possibility that the rocks and slabs were prehistoric. I stand by this statement and add only that with his vast knowledge of the subject under discussion, there is no one better suited to reveal Göbekli Tepe’s place in history today”, Graham Hancock from his Introduction to Göbekli Tepe: Genesis of the Gods. It pre-dates pottery, domesticated animals and agriculture and Professor Schmidt postulates that Göbekli Tepe was the catalyst for these things to follow. The authors suggest that enclosures A, B, and D are all one complex, and within this complex there is a "hierarchy" with enclosure D at the top. Zeitschrift für Orient-Archäologie. This corresponds well with an ancient Sumerian belief that agriculture, animal husbandry, and weaving were brought to humans from the sacred mountain Ekur, which was inhabited by Annuna deities, very ancient deities without individual names. When around 11,000 BC Vega moved out of range of the celestial pole, no bright star replaced it for several thousand years. The Debate Over Who Built Göbekli Tepe. Göbekli Tepe is considered the world’s first temple. Radiocarbon dating the first temples of mankind. In: Charles C. Mann, "The Birth of Religion: The World's First Temple". [unreliable source?] This meant that when Göbekli Tepe was constructed, ca. , Schmidt also interpreted the site in connection with the initial stages of the Neolithic. It sits smack in the middle of the fertile crescent, where earliest humans began the agricultural revolution. K. Schmidt, 2000a = Göbekli Tepe and the rock art of the Near East. Using this guise the shaman could enter the sky world and counter the actions of the supernatural creature seen as responsible for cataclysms like the comet impact of 10,900 BC, referred to by scientists today as the Younger Dryas Boundary (YDB) event. According to the book of Enoch, the human angels revealed to their wives the secret arts of heaven, many of which correspond with a number of firsts for humanity that took place in Southwest Asia in the wake of the Neolithic revolution. Butchered bones found in large numbers from local game such as deer, gazelle, pigs, and geese have been identified as refuse from food hunted and cooked or otherwise prepared for the congregants. Hamzan Tepe, Karahan Tepe, Harbetsuvan Tepesi, Sefer Tepe, and Taslı Tepe) but little excavation has been conducted. Carbon dating suggests that (for reasons unknown) the enclosures were backfilled during the Stone Age. AoM for Jan 2021, See the Built by an incredibly religious set of hunter-gatherers, Göbekli Tepe holds the singular honor of being the world’s oldest known temple. İnsanlık Tarihi İçin Neden Bu Kadar Önemlidir? Agriculture and animal husbandry were barely known when Göbekli Tepe was built, and roaming the fertile landscape of southwest Asia were, we are told, primitive hunter-gatherers, whose sole existence revolved around survival on a day-to-day basis. Yet there were clearly other reasons for the construction of Göbekli Tepe. Let’s put that in perspective. Andrew’s latest book Gobekli Tepe: Genesis of the Gods is the culmination of twenty years’ study of the origins of the Watchers and Nephilim of the book of Enoch, and the Anunnaki of Sumerian myth and legend. Göbekli Tepe (Turkish for the ‘hill of the navel’) is a 1000 foot diameter mound located at the highest point of a mountain ridge, around 9 miles northeast of the town of Şanlıurfa (Urfa) in southeastern Turkey. Ian Hodder of Stanford University said, "Göbekli Tepe changes everything. Its 'T'-shaped pillars are considerably smaller, and its rectangular ceremonial structure was located inside a village. It sits on a mountain ridge in southeast Turkey, just 8 miles (13 kilometers) from the ancient city of Urfa, close to the traditional site of the Garden of Eden. 13,000-11,000 BC it was Vega in Lyra. by Graham Hancock, Mitra Politi Known as Göbekli Tepe (pronounced Guh-behk-LEE TEH-peh), the site is vaguely reminiscent of Stonehenge, except that Göbekli Tepe was built much earlier and … Google “World’s oldest temple” (go ahead, we’ll wait) and the #1 answer is the famous Göbekli Tepe (Göbeklitepe) in southern Turkey, believed to have been built 11,000–12,000 years ago as a place to worship the dog star, Sirius. Julia Gresky, Juliane Haelm and Lee Clare, "Modified human crania from Göbekli Tepe provide evidence for a new form of Neolithic skull cult". That means that Gobekli Tepe isn’t just older than written language. In all other directions, the ridge descends steeply into slopes and steep cliffs. Even the design of the enclosures appears to have cosmic significance. The Swiderians’ highly advanced culture, which included a sophisticated stone tool technology, was derived from their distant ancestors, the Eastern Gravettian peoples that thrived between 30,000 and 19,000 BC in what is today the Czech Republic and further east on the Russian Plain. Join Andrew during June on the AoM Message Boards to discuss his new book Göbekli Tepe: Genesis of the Gods. [dubious – discuss], Around the beginning of the 8th millennium BCE Göbekli Tepe lost its importance. 2009, p. 188. , Göbekli Tepe is regarded by some as an archaeological discovery of great importance since it could profoundly change the understanding of a crucial stage in the development of human society. Since 1994 CE, excavations conducted by Klaus Schmidt of the Istanbul branch of the German Archaeological Institute, with the cooperation of the Şanlıurfa Museum, have been taking place at the site. More pressingly, why did its builders bury their creation at the end of its useful life? Why on earth was Göbekli Tepe built? "Göbekli Tepe is an archaeological wonder," Prof. Gopher explains. Erika Qasim: "The T-shaped monuments of Gobekli Tepe: Posture of the Arms". Though no tombs or graves have yet been found, Schmidt believed that graves remain to be discovered in niches located behind the walls of the sacred circles. , In 2010, Global Heritage Fund (GHF) announced it will undertake a multi-year conservation program to preserve Göbekli Tepe. He is the author of more than a dozen books that challenge the way we perceive the past. So, to finally answer the question of who built Göbekli Tepe: Stone Age people coming from a radius of roughly 200km around the site. This advanced society, who thrived in both Central and Eastern Europe around the time of the comet impact event of 10,900 BC, was responsible for the foundation of various important post-Swiderian cultures of the Mesolithic age as far north as Norway, Finland, and Sweden, as far south as the Caucasus Mountains, and as far east as the Upper Volga river of Central Russia. In the north, the plateau is connected to a neighbouring mountain range by a narrow promontory. Both birds are identified with the Cygnus constellation. This cosmic trickster was seen to take the form of a sky fox or sky wolf, embodied perhaps in the leaping foxes carved in relief on the inner faces of key pillars at Göbekli Tepe, and remembered also as the Fenris-wolf responsible for causing Ragnorak, a major cataclysm preserved in Norse mythology. Some of the floors in this, the oldest, layer are made of terrazzo (burnt lime); others are bedrock from which pedestals to hold the large pair of central pillars were carved in high relief. “In a testimonial written to accompany the publication of (Andrew’s book) From the Ashes of Angels (1996), I said that Andrew had put important new facts before the public concerning the mysterious origins of human civilization. Some researchers believe that the construction of Göbekli Tepe may have contributed to the later development of urban civilization, or, as excavator Klaus Schmidt put it, "First came the temple, then the city.". Continuing the naming pattern, it is called "complex E". Perhaps a monument built to remember what had occurred before the civilization was lost forever? These were hidden in or on a holy mountain, existing in the vicinity of the terrestrial Paradise, so that they might survive a coming cataclysm of fire and flood (a memory almost certainly of the Younger Dryas impact event). Given the broad range of animals depicted, Andrew Collins suggests this monument could have been a literal recording of the flood. He presumed shamanic practices and suggested that the T-shaped pillars represent human forms, perhaps ancestors, whereas he saw a fully articulated belief in deities as not developing until later, in Mesopotamia, that was associated with extensive temples and palaces. A pair decorated with fierce-looking lions is the rationale for the name "lion pillar building" by which their enclosure is known. The pole features three figures, the uppermost depicting a predator, probably a bear, and below it a human-like shape. ): K. Schmidt: "Frühneolithische Tempel. , A number of radiocarbon dates have been published:, The Hd samples are from charcoal in the fill of the lowest levels of the site and date the end of the active phase of the occupation of Level III – the actual structures will be older. Credit: DAI Evidence that Gobekli Tepe was peopled by hunter-gatherers as opposed to farming folk comes from the over 100,000 bits and bobs of bone found there, which had clearly been cooked. There are four 10-metre-long (33 ft) and 20-centimetre-wide (7.9 in) channels on the southern part of the plateau, interpreted as the remains of an ancient quarry from which rectangular blocks were taken.  Zooarchaeological analysis shows that gazelle were only seasonally present in the region, suggesting that events such as rituals and feasts were likely timed to occur during periods when game availability was at its peak. more Artist Fernando Baptista sculpts a model of Göbekli Tepe. They include From the Ashes of Angels (1996), which establishes that the Watchers of the book of Enoch and the Anunnaki of the Sumerian texts are the memory of a shamanic elite that catalyzed the Neolithic revolution in the Near East at the end of the last ice age; Gateway to Atlantis (2000), which pins down the source of Plato’s Atlantis to the Caribbean island of Cuba and the Bahaman archipelago; Tutankhamun: The Exodus Conspiracy (coauthored with Chris Ogilvie Herald, 2002), which reveals the truth behind the discovery of Tutankhamun’s famous tomb; and The Cygnus Mystery (2007), which shows that the constellation of Cygnus has been universally venerated as the place of first creation and the entrance to the sky world since Paleolithic times. Die ältesten Monumente der Menschheit.". Whoever built it, made sure the complex would survive along thousands of years, by backfilling the various sites and burying them deep under. State of Research and New Data", "Israeli Archaeologists Find Hidden Pattern at 'World's Oldest Temple' Göbekli Tepe", "Geometry and Architectural Planning at Göbekli Tepe, Turkey", "New Pre-Pottery Neolithic sites and cult centres in the Urfa Region", "Turkey: Archeological dig reshaping human history", "Karahan Tepe: A new cultural centre in the Urfa area in Turkey", "A small-scale cult centre in southeast Turkey: Harbetsuvan Tepesi", "New pre-pottery neolithic settlements from Viranşehir District", "Concrete poured on Turkish World Heritage site", "Construction around site of Göbeklitepe stirs debate", "So Fair a House: Göbekli Tepe and the Identification of Temples in the Pre-Pottery Neolithic of the Near East", http://www.smithsonianmag.com/history-archaeology/gobekli-tepe.html, http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/2011/06/gobekli-tepe/mann-text, "Animals in the symbolic world of Pre-Pottery Neolithic Göbekli Tepe, south-eastern Turkey: a preliminary assessment, "Göbekli Tepe, Southeastern Turkey. Stonehenge was built in 3000 BC, and the oldest signs of human writing were created in Sumer in 3,300 BC. Schmidt identified this story as a primeval oriental myth that preserves a partial memory of the emerging Neolithic. K. Schmidt, "Göbekli Tepe. These possibly are related to a square building in the neighbourhood, of which only the foundation is preserved. Another possible point in favor of people from a larger area congregating at Göbekli Tepe is presented by raw material sourcing of the obsidian found onsite [read more here – external link]. , At this early stage of the site's history, circular compounds or temene first appear. Göbekli Tepe follows a geometric pattern. The team has also found many remains of tools. These enormous monoliths, sometimes 18 feet (5.5 meters) in height and weighing as much as 16.5 US tons (15 metric tonnes) a piece, acted as otherworldly portals to invisible realms – true star gates in every sense of the word. Between ca. ): "Vor 12.000 Jahren in Anatolien. Sometime around 8000 BC the last remaining enclosures were covered over with imported earth, stone chippings and refuse matter, and the site abandoned to the elements. Klaus Schmidt (2009) "Göbekli Tepe – Eine Beschreibung der wichtigsten Befunde erstellt nach den Arbeiten der Grabungsteams der Jahre 1995–2007"; Dietrich, Oliver. Most of this ancient site still remains buried. Sure, this monumental site was essentially buried underground, so it wasn’t the easiest to find. Here the Anunnaki are said to have given human kind the first sheep and grain, a memory almost certainly of the introduction of animal husbandry and agriculture at the time of the Neolithic revolution, which occurred in the same region as Göbekli Tepe around 9000-8000 BC. If Swiderian groups were the shamanic elite responsible for Göbekli Tepe, then there is every chance that the cosmic knowledge encoded into its construction came, at least in part, from highly evolved individuals who were by nature Neanderthal-human hybrids of striking physical appearance. Even after Deneb ceased to be Pole Star around 14,000 BC, due to the effects of precession (the slow wobble of the earth’s axis across a cycle of approximately 26,000 years), its place was taken by another Cygnus star, Delta Cygni, which held the position until around 13,000 BC. They are fitted into sockets that were hewn out of the local bedrock. In: K. Schmidt: "Zuerst kam der Tempel, dann die Stadt." Many animal and even human bones have been identified in the fill. And whenever this supernatural creature returned to the heavens in the guise of a comet—seen as a visible manifestation of the sky fox or sky wolf—it would be the shaman’s role to enter the sky world and counter its baleful influence, a primary motivation I see as behind the construction of Göbekli Tepe. When and where was it discovered? It is the only relief found in this cave. Its weight may be around 50 tons. It is a story of discovery I would now like to share with you. GrahamHancock.com is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to products on Amazon. Their territories, across which they traded different forms of flint, as well ashematite used as red ochre, stretched from the Carpathians Mountains in the west to the Russian steppes and plain in the east. However, the complex was not simply abandoned and forgotten to be gradually destroyed by the elements. Göbekli Tepe is a name familiar to anyone interested in the ancient mysteries subject. Andrew Curry, "Göbekli Tepe: The World’s First Temple?". Noah’s Ark. Göbekli Tepe (which translates to "potbelly hill" in Turkish) was built some 11,000 to 12,000 years ago — hundreds of years before any evidence of … Here, for the past ten thousand years, its secrets have remained hidden beneath an artificial, belly-shaped mound of earth some 330 by 220 yards (300 m by 200 meters) in size. Located around … Klaus-Dieter Linsmeier and Klaus Schmidt: "Ein anatolisches Stonehenge". Layer I is the uppermost part of the hill. , The plateau has been transformed by erosion and by quarrying, which took place not only in the Neolithic, but also in classical times. , The conservation work caused controversy in 2018, when Çiğdem Köksal Schmidt, an archaeologist and widow of Klaus Schmidt, said the site was being damaged by the use of concrete and "heavy equipment" during the construction of a new walkway. Over a period of around 1,500 years twenty or more major enclosures were constructed within the gradually emerging occupational mound at Göbekli Tepe.  The tell (artificial mound) has a height of 15 m (50 ft) and is about 300 m (1,000 ft) in diameter. Immediately northwest of this area are two cistern-like pits that are believed to be part of complex E. One of these pits has a table-high pin as well as a staircase with five steps. The sheer age and size of Gobekli Tepe is absolutely mind boggling. The elite of the Halaf and Ubaid were probably the forerunners of the god-kings who ruled the first city-states down on the Mesopotamian plain, which eventually became the civilizations of Sumer, Akkad, Assyria and Babylon. In modern times, it was rediscovered in 1963 during a survey conducted by Istanbul University and University of Chicago. Its floor has been carefully hewn out of the bedrock and smoothed, reminiscent of the terrazzo floors of the younger complexes at Göbekli Tepe. Everything points toward Bingöl Mountain being not only the “birthplace” of the Anunnaki, but also the site of the mountain of Paradise, and the place of descent of the Watchers in the book of Enoch. Yet, Gobekli Tepe was a pre-agricultural society; it was built before people in the region started farming. Billed as the oldest stone temple in the world, it is composed of a series of megalithic structures containing rings of beautifully carved T-shaped pillars. An episode of Joe Rogan’s podcast, featuring Graham Hancock, garnered more than 3.5 million views on its episode about Göbekli Tepe, since it … It was a concept dimly remembered in the name Göbekli Tepe, which in Turkish means “navel-like hill.”. The details of the structure's function remain a mystery. In addition to its large dimensions, the side-by-side existence of multiple pillar shrines makes the location unique. (, This page was last edited on 9 January 2021, at 20:05. At this time Deneb acted as Pole Star, the star closest to the celestial pole during any particular epoch. Stone benches designed for sitting are found in the interior. They include From the Ashes of Angels (1996), which establishes that the Watchers of the book of Enoch and the Anunnaki of the Sumerian texts are the memory of a shamanic elite that catalyzed the Neolithic revolution in the Near East at the end of the last ice age; Gateway to Atlantis (2000), which pins down the source of Plato’s Atlantis to the Caribbean island of Cuba and the Bahaman archipelago; Tutankhamun: The Exodus Conspiracy (coauthored with Chris Ogilvie Herald, 2002), which reveals the truth behind the discovery of Tutankhamun’s famous tomb; and The Cygnus Mystery (2007), which shows that the constellation of Cygnus has been universally venerated as the place of first creation and the entrance to the sky world since Paleolithic times. But how did a hill not… ), Metin Yeşilyurt, "Die wissenschaftliche Interpretation von Göbeklitepe: Die Theorie und das Forschungsprogramm". A preliminary Report on the 1995–1999 Excavations. 4.  In the second phase, belonging to the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB), the erected pillars are smaller and stood in rectangular rooms with floors of polished lime.  Schmidt believed that what he called this "cathedral on a hill" was a pilgrimage destination attracting worshippers up to 150 km (90 mi) distant. (ed.  In 2017, discovery of human crania with incisions was reported, interpreted as providing evidence for a new form of Neolithic skull cult. He reviewed the archaeological literature on the surrounding area, found the 1963 Chicago researchers' brief description of Göbekli Tepe, and decided to reexamine the site. Göbekli Tepe is an archaeological site found in the southeast of Turkey. Their profiles were pecked into the rock, with the detached blocks then levered out of the rock bank. [dubious – discuss] The inhabitants are presumed to have been hunters and gatherers who nevertheless lived in villages for at least part of the year. The site itself comprises around 200 limestone pillars, situated in … In defense of an archaeology of cult at Pre-Pottery Neolithic Gobekli Tepe", "Gobekli Tepe: The World's First Temple? Were they the true founders of civilization? For more on Andrew Collins go to www.andrewcollins.com. by Graham Hancock, Eater of Souls Based on everything we know, Göbekli Tepe shouldn’t exist. Then we come to the impact Göbekli Tepe had on the earliest Semitic peoples of North Mesopotamia. Their oral traditions would one day be carried into the land of Canaan by the first Israelites and recorded down in religious works such as the book of Enoch and the book of Giants. At the time the edifice was constructed, the surrounding country was likely to have been forested and capable of sustaining this variety of wildlife, before millennia of human settlement and cultivation led to the near–Dust Bowl conditions prevalent today. 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